The “Agricultural Origins of Urban Civilization” Project aims to refine and integrate new methods of reconstructing past crop growing conditions to evaluate the nature and social significance of farming practices in Europe and Western Asia. New methods for investigating ancient landscape use and farming techniques such as multi-isotope measurements of preserved plant remains will be combined with traditional archaeobotanical and weed ecological approaches. The socio-economic impact of changes in crop management strategies will be investigated in three regional sequences of Neolithic-Bronze Age sites that encompass full-scale urbanisation as well as alternative trajectories.